Ancient Egypt is one of the greatest civilizations known to humans in the world. It is also one of the oldest civilizations dated back to 3150 BC. The civilization is known for its intricate artwork and amazing stone monuments. They are the one who has created a calendar that has 365 days. They are the one who have introduced first form of writing named as hieroglyphics. These things show how the great the civilization was at that time. The different art and architecture depicted by the civilization is a base for many different cultures in the world. The Egyptian kings ruled the civilization for a long era thus creating and many monuments in the world which is surviving even today. So here we are listing 10 most famous monuments of Ancient Egypt,
Most Famous Monuments Of Ancient Egypt
1. Great Pyramid of Giza
The Great Pyramid of Giza is also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops. It is considered to be the oldest of all the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It is also the largest of all the three pyramids in the Giza. It is situated in Giza Necropolis of Egypt. The initial construction has been started by Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu then it was continued by his son Khafre and finally completed by Menkaure. It took almost 20 years to build the pyramid and approximately 2 million blocks of stone has been used in the construction. The height of the pyramid is approximately 139 metres making it the highest pyramid of Egypt.
When you will visit the place you will notice nearby pyramid appears to be larger because it has been built at higher elevation. The pyramid has basically three chambers, the first one has been carved into a beautiful bed rock, second one is specifically for the king and Queen and the last one is king’s chamber made up of granite.
2. Valley of the Kings
Valley of the Kings is basically the tombs that were constructed for the Pharaohs and the most powerful Egyptian nobles of the new kingdom. The valley has been situated on the west banks of Nile. The valley contains 63 tombs and chambers and has two parts namely East valley and West valley. The tombs have been decorated with the art and architecture of Egyptian mythology. The art on the tombs depicted the mythology of belief and rituals which they were following at that time. The Tutankhamun tomb is the most famous of all the tombs in the valley. It is one of the most important archaeological site in the world. he valley of kings is also a UNESCO world heritage site since 1979.
The tombs are also stocked with many sacred objects. The people of Ancient Egypt believe that it will help the dead bodies to achieve eternal life. The tombs are being built with limestone and sedimentary rocks. It is also one of the most famous archaeological sites in the world.
3. Colossi of Memnon
The local people of Egypt called it as el-Colossat or es-Salamat. Colossi of Memnon are a huge structure of Pharaoh Amenhotep III who ruled the Dynasty XVIII. The structure is now situated in the modern city of Luxor. The twin statues of Amenhotep III can be seen in seated position with his hands resting on his knees. The face of the stature is facing towards eastward. The Statue has been built with blocks of quartzite sandstone. The statue has a height of 75 ft. and weighing approximately 750 tons. The statues are very attractive and millions of tourist comes here to visit the ancient site.
The statues are quite damaged and the face is not recognizable. It is one of the most important and visited Ancient Egypt monument.
4. Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut
The Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut has been dedicated to sun god Amon-Ra and it is being built by Hatshepsut who ruled the kingdom from 1479 BC till he died in 1458 BC. The temple was found inside the cliffs at Deir el Bahari which is situated on west bank of the river Nile. It is considered to be the one of the most unique monument of Ancient Egypt. The temple was designed by Senemut who is the royal architect of Hatshepsut. The wall of temple has been kept at an axis such that the sunlight will come from the rear wall of the chapel. Hatshepsut’s temple is a unique example of the classical architecture of the Ancient Egypt.
5. Pyramid of Djoser
It is also known as step pyramid. It is also the first ever pyramid built by the Egyptian kings. It was constructed during the 27th century BC burial of Pharaoh Djoser by Imhotep and his vizier. The pyramid has a huge mortuary complex surrounded by the beautiful structures and the amazing decorations. The structure has sex mastabas built in decreasing size, you can see in the below picture. The pyramid is approximately 62 metres high and made up of polished white limestone. It was also the highest stone cut structure in Ancient Egypt.
It is surrounded by the beautiful chambers and the galleries that have a total length of about 6KM. It was dedicated to the late pharaoh Djoser. The area in which pyramid was constructed also has temples and chapels.
You can also read: 10 Historical And Precious Monuments Destroyed By War
6. Luxor Temple
Luxor Temple is a huge Egyptian temple complex that has six temples inside it. The temples have been dedicated to three Egyptian gods Amun, Mut, and Chons. It was situated on the east bank of river Nile. Now it is known as the Luxor city. The temple complex is also known for hosting one of the most famous Ancient Egypt festivals called opet festival. All the temples have been constructed using sandstones. The place is also very much famous among the tourist for its history. The temple complex has been abandoned for very long time after that Alexander the Great has started the construction of the planet again in 320 BC. It has been built in such a way that the complex has many open areas so that the flow of air can be maintained.
The East and West coast of the river Nile has many temples that are very famous among the visitors. The temples are Temple of Seti I at Gurnah, the Temple of Hatshepsut at Deir el Bahri, the Temple of Ramesses II and Temple of Ramesses III at Medinet Habu.
7. Abu Simbel Temples
The Abu Simbel temples are the two massive rock temples situated near the village in Nubia of southern Egypt. It was constructed by the Egyptian king pharaoh Ramasses II. It was dedicated to the Sun Gods of Ancient Egypt known as Sun Gods Amon-Re and Re-Horakhte. The temple has been in abandoned state for a very long period of time, later it was rediscovered by Swiss orientalist Jean Louis Burckhadt. It was built in the period 1264 B.C and 1244 B.C. At the entrance of the temple it has 69 ft. huge statues of Ramasses II. The hall other temple has been constructed in such a way that it will remain connected to the inner chambers of the temple.
The temple is planned and constructed in such a way that the Sun rays will light the statues of the Sun Gods on every 22nd February and 22nd October. This is one of the most unique features of the temple.
8. Bent Pyramid
Bent Pyramid is an Ancient Egypt pyramid located in south of Cairo. It was built under the Old Kingdom Pharaoh Sneferu during 2600 BC. It is one of the finest examples of early pyramids that is being constructed at that time. It was built in such a way that it will arise till the 54-degree inclination but at the top it has a shallower angle of 43 degrees making it in bent appearance and hence the name. According to the Archaeologists, It was one of the finest examples of step-sided and smooth-sided pyramids. It is situated near Lake Nasser. There is also an artificial water reservoir formed because of the construction of the dam at river Nile. The monument has been dedicated to queen Nefertari and Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses.
9. Great Sphinx of Giza
The Great Sphinx of Giza is limestone statue of couchant sphinx meaning a lion’s body and human head in a mythical creature. It was situated on the west bank of Nile River in Egypt. The statue stands on the Giza Plateau. The face of the Great Sphinx is the face of Pharaoh Khafra. It is also one of the oldest and largest monuments of the Ancient Egypt. The statue is smaller than the pyramids that were constructed around him but it is still the largest monolith statue in the world. There is many conflicts between the Egyptologists over the point when it was built but large portion of Egyptologists believe that it was built during 2500 BC by pharaoh Khafre. Pharaoh Khafre is also considered to be the builder of the second pyramid at Giza.
10. Red Pyramid
Red Pyramid was one of the finest and successful attempts by Pharaoh Sneferu in building world’s first ever smooth sided pyramid during the Ancient Egypt period. The height of the pyramid is 104m making it the world’s 4th largest pyramid in Egypt. The pyramid has been built with red limestone stones and hence the name. The local people of Egypt called it as el-heram el-watwaat meaning the Bat Pyramid.
Initially the pyramid has been built with Tura limestone but later almost all the Tura limestone has been taken to build buildings in Cairo displaying the red limestone that was embedded inside the monument.
You can also read: 10 Fascinating Facts About the Ancient Egyptian Pyramids You Should Know